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Audits Worldwide

Audits Worldwide

Development of the Democratic Audit Framework

Democratic Audit first developed the framework for use in the UK. The Audit's pioneering work on democratic auditing has since been developed through the inter-governmental body, International IDEA (Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance), Stockholm.  With IDEA’s support,we re-designed and expanded the framework to create a universal tool for assessing the condition of democracy in any country in the world. An international panel of experts agreed the framework after exhaustive discussion and International IDEA published a full guide to the assessment framework in 2002:The International IDEA Handbook on Democracy Assessment (David Beetham et al, IDEA/Kluwer Law International). The Handbook describes the whole process of taking on a democratic audit. We used the full framework for the 2002 Audit of the UK, Democracy under Blair.

From 2002-04, a team drawn from Democratic Audit and the Centre for Democratisation Studies, University of Leeds, worked with IDEAto pilot the framework in eight countries around the world. These countries were: Bangladesh, El Salvador, Italy, Kenya, South Korea, Malawi, New Zealand and Peru. A comparative guide to the eight pilot democracy assessments sponsored by IDEA was also published in 2002: The State of Democracy: Democracy Assessments in Eight Nations Around the World(David Beetham et al, IDEA/Kluwer Law International, 2002).

The democracy assessment framework has also been adapted for the UK Department for International Development to build democratic arrangements and human rights - including economic and social rights - in development programmes aimed at providing pro-poor services and empowering marginalised communities.

Democratic Audits around the World

In addition to the eight pilot assessments carried out from 2002-04, the Audit methodology has been applied in at least 15 democracies, including Australia, Austria, Ireland, Latvia, the Philippines and South Africa. A similar approach has also been adopted by the Democratic Audits of Canada, Russia and Sweden – although the Audits in these countries do not use the IDEA framework. In addition, a number of large-scale national 'power and democracy’ studies have also been conducted in recent years, notably in the Scandinavian countries.

Basic details about all the democracy assessments we are aware of, with links to relevant information, are provided in the list of democracy assessments below.

Democratic Audits in Comparative Perspective: A Workshop

A workshop on 'Democratic Audits in Comparative Perspective: Approaches, Results, Impact' was held at Leiden University, the Netherlands from January 18-19, 2013. The event was organised by Rudy Andeweg (Leiden University) and Jacques Thomassen (University of Twente) and funded by the Dutch Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences.

The papers presented at this workshop examined the approaches, key findings and the impact of democracy audits undertake in five countries. Additional papers considered democratic deficits from a comparative perspective (drawing on the findings of various national audits) and also the experience of adapting democratic auditing for the purpose of studying decision-making in the European Union.

WORKSHOP PAPERS (JAN 2013)     

David Beetham Problems in Identifying a "Democratic Deficit" DOWNLOAD  (PDF)
Christopher Lord Democratic Auditing of the European Union: Past and Future

DOWNLOAD  (PDF)

Clodagh Harris Power to the People? Assessing Democracy in Ireland - The Irish Democratic Audit DOWNLOAD (PDF)
Olof Petersson The Democratic Audit of Sweden, 1995-2011 DOWNLOAD (PDF) 
Stuart Wilks-Heeg The Democratic Audit of the UK: Origins, Approach, Findings and Impact  DOWNLOAD (PDF) 
Marian Sawer Health Check for an Old Democracy: The Democratic Audit of Australia  DOWNLOAD (PDF)
Bill Cross The Canadian Democratic Audit  DOWNLOAD (PDF)
Jacques Thomassen and Rudy Andeweg  The Democratic Audit of the Netherlands: Its Approach, Criteria, Results and Impact  DOWNLOAD (PDF)

 

List of democracy assessments around the world

STATES USING IDEA FRAMEWORK

Democracy Audits/State of Democracy Assessments

Australia

Australia: The State of Democracy

2009

M. Sawer et al.

Latvia

How democratic is Latvia? Audit of Democracy

2005

J. Rozenvalds (ed)

Mongolia

Democratic Governance Indicators: Assessing the State of Governance in Mongolia

2006

H. Hulan (ed)

Netherlands

The State of our Democracy

Democratie doorgelicht ('Democracy vetted')** 

2006

2011

Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations

Andwerweg and Thomasson (eds.)

Philippines

Various

ongoing

E. Co et al.

UK

Democracy under Blair: A Democratic Audit of the UK

2003

D.Beetham et al.

Bosnia

Democracy Assessment in Bosnia and Herzegovina

2006 S. Dizdarevic et al.

Ecuador

Andean Democratic Audit 2008 M. Briones et al.

India

Citizens’ Report on Governance and Development 2009 Social  Watch India

Ireland

Power to the People? Assessing Democracy in Ireland 2007 TASC

Mexico

State of Democracy in Mexico 2009 G. Emmerich et al

Nepal

Nepal in Transition - A Study on the State of Democracy 2008 K.  Hachhethu et al

Northern Ireland

Power to the People? Assessing Democracy in Northern Ireland

2007

TASC

Portugal

The Quality of Portuguese Democracy under the European Union ? J. Magone

** The 2011 Dutch Audit did not use the IDEA framework, but is included here alongside the 2006 Dutch Audit for ease of reference.

 IDEA Pilot studies

Bangladesh

State of Democracy in Bangladesh

2002

D. Barman et al.

El Salvador

Country Report Republica de El Salvador

2000

F. Ulloa et al.

Italy

Democracy Report for Italy          

2000

L. Morlino et al.

Kenya

Democracy Report for Jamhuri Ya Kenya

2000

N. Ng’ethe et al.

Malawi

Democracy Report for Malawi

2000

W. Chirwa et al.

New Zealand

Democracy in New Zealand

2002

J. Henderson

Peru

Democracy Report for Peru

2000

R. Cobian et al.

South Korea

Democracy Report for South Korea

2000

C. Moon et al.

Regional Studies

Central Asia

State of Democracy in Central Asia: A Comparative Study

2006

T. Landman et al.

South Asia

State of Democracy in South Asia

2008

CSDS

STATES USING OTHER FRAMEWORK

Alternative or Similar Approach to IDEA

Canada

Canada Today: A Democratic Audit 2004-2006

2006

Various (by vol.)

Russia

Democratic Audit of Russia

TBC

I. Yakovenko

Slovakia

Slovakia 2009. Trends in Quality of Democracy

2009

M. Butora et al.

Sweden

Various reports (details in Swedish or in English

1995-2011

SNS

“State of Democracy” Reports

Austria

Zur Qualitat der britischen und osterreichischen demokratie

2003

E. Beck et al.

Costa Rica

Citizen's Audit on the Quality of Democracy

2001

?

Denmark

An Analysis of Democracy and Power in Denmark

2003

Jørgensen & Vrangbæk

Montenegro

Democracy Index

2009

M. Besic et al.

Norway

Norwegian Power and Democracy Project (1998–2003)

2004

O.  Østerud et al.

Regional Studies

Africa

Various

ongoing

AfriMap

European Union

A Democratic Audit of the EU (One Europe or Several?)

2004

C. Lord

Latin America

Various

-

LAPOP

 

List of Audits worldwide compiled by Raminder Samrai